The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer … (a) Parabolic dispersion of the low-energy bands around one of the inequivalent corners of the Brillouin zone. Since its isolation in 2004, graphene has opened the door for other 2-D materials. ISSN 1539-0756 (online), 0034-6861 (print). Sign up to receive regular email alerts from Reviews of Modern Physics. The APS Physics logo and Physics logo are trademarks of the American Physical Society. In the decade since, exciting results have made the field of graphene spintronics blossom, and a second generation of studies has extended to new two-dimensional (2D) compounds. Away from the charge neutrality point, the anisotropy diminishes and the response becomes similar to the cyan dashed line. The Reviews of Modern Physics is a journal of the American Physical Society. The upper (lower) sign applies to spin-up (spin-down) electrons, with the hopping defined along the arrows in the right panel. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. (b) Polar magneto-optical measurement for CrI3 showing hysteresis for a ferromagnetic monolayer (1L) and trilayer (3L), and vanishing Kerr rotation for an antiferromagnetic bilayer (2L). (11). Professor Francisco Guinea who co-authored the paper said: "The field of spintronics, the properties and manipulation of spins in materials has brought to light a number of novel aspects in the behavior of solids. Chembo Published in APS Reviews of Modern Physics. (c) Incident angle dependence of optically generated nonlocal signal under quarter and half wave modulations in a graphene/WSe2 device. The detector electrode with in-plane magnetization direction M+ (M−) measures positive (negative) signal above (below) zero field. This Colloquium reviews recent theoretical and experimental advances on electronic spin transport in graphene and related 2D materials, focusing on emergent phenomena in van der Waals heterostructures and the new perspectives provided by them. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.92.021003, Physical Review Physics Education Research, Log in with individual APS Journal Account », Log in with a username/password provided by your institution », Get access through a U.S. public or high school library ». APS; Review of Modern Physics; Associate Professor Yanne K. Chembo. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); }); Recent theoretical and experimental advances and phenomena in studies of electronic spin transport in graphene and related two-dimensional (2-D) materials have emerged as a fascinating area of research and development. Information about registration may be found here. The content is provided for information purposes only. Note that the bands remain spin degenerate due to inversion symmetry. (c) (Top panel) The device geometry, where the electrolyte gating technique was employed to induce an electric field. From [12]. In principle we could have phones and tablets operating with spin-based transistors and memories. In sharp contrast to the quarter wave modulation case, the nonlocal signal for half wave modulation shows extremely weak dependence on θ. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. (b) Electric-field dependence of the ratio in- and out-of-plane injected spins at fixed carrier concentrations. From [65]. (Inset) Optical picture of a completed device. Graphene is also resistant against extrinsic impurities because its chemical bonding is very specific and consequently graphene conducts electricity better, with less energy loss, than silicon (the platform of all modern electronics). and Terms of Use. (c) Back gate voltage dependence of spin-relaxation length in an inverted graphene spin valve. From [114]. part may be reproduced without the written permission. From [125]. Low-energy bands of graphene around the corners of the Brillouin zone (all values in μeV): (a) ΔBR=0, (b) ΔBR=6, (c) ΔBR=12, and (d) ΔBR=18 (ΔKM=12 in all cases). (c) Anisotropy measurements in a graphene/WS2 spin valve device. phase (2007–2009) of 2D graphene physics. From [183]. (b) Dependence of nonlocal spin signal in bilayer graphene on the local resistance at the Dirac point. From [232]. Spin precession and a sizable signal are detectable only for VBG>0. ©2020 American Physical Society. (d) Corresponding Hanle spin precession signal, for parallel orientation of the contacts. Spintronics in 2D materials beyond graphene. The journal started in paper form. Overall, the field of spintronics in graphene and related 2-D materials is currently moving towards the demonstration of practical graphene spintronic devices such as coupled nano-oscillators for applications in fields of space communication, high‐speed radio links, vehicle radar and interchip communication applications. Agreement. Graphene acts as an ideal spin-transport channel given its long spin-relaxation length. Solid green dots represent the measurements taken at VBG=−15  V, with the green line being a fit revealing an anisotropy of ∼10. (Inset) The measurement geometry. As such, 2D graphene rolled up in the plane is a carbon nanotube, and multilayer graphene with weak 408 Das Sarma et al. High-quality heterostructures for spin transport. Note that the Bychkov-Rashba coupling lifts the spin degeneracy of the bands. This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. (Bottom panel) The anomalous Hall effect measurements as a function of temperature in a four layer thick Fe3GeTe2. Spintronic devices are a viable alternative for nanoelectronics beyond Moore's law, offering higher energy efficiency and lower dissipation as compared to conventional electronics, which relies on charge currents. After the first unequivocal demonstration of spin transport in graphene [Tombros et al., Nature (London) 448, 571–574 (2007)], surprisingly at room temperature, it was quickly realized that this novel material was relevant for both fundamental spintronics and future applications. Proximity-enabled graphene-TMDC devices. What are some example Feynman diagrams in Yang-Mills theory? (a) Carrier concentration dependence of the nonlocal resistance in weakly hydrogenated (RNLmax∼80  Ω) and pristine (RNLmax∼20  Ω) graphene, shown as red and blue lines, respectively. Abstract: We review the problem of electron-electron interactions in graphene. From [7]. (2009), the accessible reviews by Geim and his collaborators (Geim and Novoselov, 2007; Geim, 2009), the recent brief review … From [144]. This tunes the density of states in magnetic Fe3GeTe2. "As efforts on both the fundamental and technological aspects continue, we believe that ballistic spin transport will be realized in 2-D heterostructures, even at room temperature.