Although the colonists were all British descent, their societies were completely dissimilar. Some ultimately left power in the hands of the church while others became royal colonies where the governor holds control. The New England, Middle, and Southern regions each had different geographical and cultural characteristics that determined the development of their economy, society, and relationship to each other. key economic, political and social characteristics of the southern colonies 1. key economic, political and social characteristics of the southern colonies by: hystorian viviane harle 2. southern colonies/ founders the southern colonies are made up of maryland, virginia, north carolina, south carolina and georgia. New England was then soon settled by English … The English colonies had different political structure, population size, and reasons for colonizing in the New World. Although they were still controlled by the new British crown after James' departure, many of the New England Colonies … Differences in climate, religious beliefs and ambitions influenced life in the colonies. The region was named by Captain John Smith, who explored its shores in 1614 for some London merchants. Wealthy plantation owners with Anglican beliefs replicated European feudalism in the southern colonies. They called themselves Pilgrims because they were taking a journey for religious reasons. New Englanders valued hard work and individualism. The New England Colonies enjoyed a relatively significant degree of political autonomy until King James II ascended the British throne in 1685, but England's 1688 Glorious Revolution removed James from power and loosened the autocratic grip on the American colonies. Massachusetts Bay Colony Was established in 1629 by the Puritans who were led by John Winthrop.It was the most successful and influential colony in New England. The Southern Colonies were an Oligarchy, which meant that wealthy plantation owners controlled the government since they could pay for their expenses. Massachusetts Bay also became the opening act of the American Revolutionary War when the Minutemen repelled a British offensive attack in the Battle of Lexington and Concord.. The New England Colonies – Political & Social Characteristics After the success in Jamestown, the next set of English colonists arrived. The New England Colonies were a theocracy, which meant that the church controlled the government.The Middle Colonies had their government and church separated. Small farming and manufacturing drove the economy. They received grants from the Virginia Company and sailed for Virginia on a ship called The Mayflower. New England, region, northeastern United States, including the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. By the 1700’s, the American colonies grew into three distinct regions.