Note that many of these constructions are introduced by the conjunction as: Now it should be pointed out that your signal phrase can include quite a bit more than the author and the verb. Quotations are categorized by the way they are introduced, and there are three different signal phrases. This way of integrating the quotation (placing the signal phrase later in the sentence) is of course much more common when the words are spoken rather than written down: “I will shoot anyone who thinks gun control is unnecessary,” shouted Ella Pringle, at a rally in Utah. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> ���� JFIF �� C If you find this an awkward construction, then just use the next method of integrating quotations: the run-in quotation. If it’s quite long then it may have to be formatted differently as a block quotation. stream endobj 8 0 obj To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. The only caution is that continuing after the quotation is best done when your signal phrase runs right into the quotation (see above) and when the quotation is relatively short. %PDF-1.3 << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI ] /ColorSpace << /Cs1 7 0 R Quoting is not just about referencing a few lines of text that see… << /Im1 8 0 R >> >> Provide the author and specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. It’s an area where many people struggle. Accessing this subject requires a login. Does your signal phrase include at least a subject and a verb (e.g., He suggests?). Sometimes, this linking of the quote to your subject matter fits snugly within one sentences. The key is that the signal phrase and the quotation need to be combined to form a complete sentence. In academic writing, nearly every quotation is made up of three parts: a signal phrase, the quote itself, and some kind of citation: Example: As Kurt Ramble argues, “Urban farming should be incorporated in the elementary school curriculum” (78). The quotation then acts as proof or evidence of the signal phrase: Godfrey Boggart, on the other hand, claims that opera is a dead art form: “While classic operas like Carmen or The Magic Flute are still being performed, most new operas receive little public attention and are in any case overshadowed by musicals” (49). endstream That’s why learning the rules is time well spent. Any other details should be saved for the works cited page. stream That’s why learning the rules is time well spent. As for the citation, in this guide we will be using parentheses, but you could use footnotes or endnotes if you’re not following MLA conventions. The quotation can be long or short. a. Occasionally you may come across a quotation that has no signal phrase. Don’t fudge it by adding semi-colons. (Save that information for the Works Cited list.) In all such cases we use a comma between the signal phrase and the quotation. You can even place the signal phrase in the middle if you like: “The high costs of drugs,” writes economist Hugo X. Santana, “are as much an effect of government intervention as a by-product of free market capitalism” (19). Often you can combine your signal phrase with the quotation to form one complete sentence. If you want to see dramatic improvement in your writing, then focus on integrating quotations. Whereas in ordinary speech we easily introduce the words of others (he said; she was like), it somehow seems more difficult in writing. 2 0 obj Notice, however, that at the core of these signal phrases we still have the author and the verb. In fact, being able to integrate quotations will give you the confidence to interact with the ideas of others, to be part of a larger discussion. Are both the quotation and your introduction complete sentences? << /Length 9 0 R /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 2500 /Height 1875 /ColorSpace endobj The signal phrase consists of your own words that signal to the reader that there’s a quotation coming. Our advice is to play it safe and always provide a signal phrase. /Rotate 0 >> Next we have a more stately way to introduce quotations. Don’t worry though–with a bit of practice you’ll master the rules soon enough. Otherwise your reader won’t immediately know what to make of the quotation and has to wait for an explanation. If your quotation started at the beginning of a sentence in your source, have you kept the capital? Quoting is not just about referencing a few lines of text that seem vaguely relevant. %��������� Most quotations share the following details: You’ll notice that this passage is not crammed full of bibliographic information.